Free 1000 words essay on China-Pakistan relations and impacts on India for school and college students.
US President Donald Trump’s recent reviled tweet on Pakistan accusing the latter almost openly of sponsoring terrorism with the military aid given to them in billions of dollars, has sent shockwaves. Although, there were prior indications of his indignance, the manner in which Pakistan has been lambasted is both embarrassing and worrying. The present US administration has created a new National Security Strategy placing Russia and China as its foe or competitor in cryptic words. On the other hand, India has been named as a friend and partner. Such rebalancing of diplomatic relations is followed by a staunch denouncement of India’s arch-rival Pakistan’s unwillingness to control Taliban and Al-Qaeda among other lethal terror gangs operating on its soil.
China immediately sprang into action through its official stance that says “Pakistan has made great efforts and sacrifices for combating terrorism and made prominent contributions to the cause of international counterterrorism, and the international community should fully recognize this. We welcome Pakistan and other countries’ cooperation on counter-terrorism and in other fields on the basis of mutual respect and their joint commitment to the security and stability of the region and the world.” Experts believe that President Trump’s clear declaration of suspension of military succor will bring China and Pakistan together. While India rejoices at the harsh treatment of Pakistan, it has new reasons to worry about its even-closer alignment with China, another neighbor it has once fought a deadly war with.
To understand the history of the balance of power, a sneak into the Cold War history is indispensable. Pakistan was the first Islamic country to recognize Communist China and establish relations with it, and since then they have remained strong allies. Their bilateral engagements are promising, such that China took Pakistan’s side against India in the wars of 1967 and 1971. China also provided assistance for Pakistan to become a nuclear power in 1998, and used its Security Council veto power for the first time in 1972 to block the entry of Bangladesh into the United Nations. In fact, Pakistan played an important role in the thaw of US-China relations that began with the then Secretary of State Henry Kissinger’s visit to China in 1971. Pakistan was the only country alongside Cuba that supported China for the Tiananmen Square incident. This clearly demonstrates the all-weather and unconditional support both countries provide each other even in the most adverse cases. In the cold war period, although India kept a non-alignment strategy over foreign policy, it had close civil-military relations with the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, China ruled by Mao Zedong and USSR under Nikita Khrushchev had a fallout in the 1960s. China pursued a policy of alliance with Pakistan to balance against India.
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After the normalization of relations between China and the United States, both supported Pakistan militarily and financially to contain the influence of Soviet Union in Central and South Asia. Its best manifestation was during the war in Afghanistan. There were structural changes in the region after the disintegration of USSR, the rise of Taliban’s power in Afghanistan and thereafter, the 9/11 deadly attacks in the US. The United States switched to a global anti-terrorism policy. Meanwhile, China Pakistan relations kept getting strengthened.
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After the global financial crisis of 2008, China’s overall power advanced substantially and it’s political, military, economic, and even cultural influence expanded. It brought changes in the regional power relations in Central and South Asia. China regards India as a potential overseas market for future expansion, and hence contentious border issue between them was sidelined from trade and commerce. Nevertheless, Pakistan has an important role in ensuring a stable regional order in Central and South Asia and preventing the spread of terrorism to China. Although China secretly acknowledges the ambiguous role played by Pakistan in the US-led alliance theoretically while surreptitiously supporting the terrorist commanders, it never accepts it officially, and instead offers vindication.
Chinese President Xi Jinping began his One Belt One Road Initiative as a personal ambition to create an enormous trade corridor encompassing Asia that reaches Europe. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor is an important part of this project into which China is investing $46 billion, the biggest investment Pakistan has ever received. Other than infrastructure and energy projects, they have advanced their relations in the field of social, economic, technological, and even cultural cooperation. India has publicly refuted any engagements with the Belt and Road Initiative given concerns of some part of CPEC crossing the Pakistan-occupied Kashmir region, claimed by India to be its sovereign territory. India maintains its resolute position of not accepting the credibility of a project that violates a sensitive issue of territorial integrity. India contests every Sino-Pak agreement of that region of ceding territory.
Major irritants between India and China relations include Chinese blatant denial to include India as a member of the elite Nuclear Supplier’s Group as well as putting a technical hold on Jaish-e-Mohammad chief Masood Azhar being named a UN-designated terrorist. This is a bold move as China remains the only country that has vetoed this resolution several times single-handedly in the United Nations Security Council. India has put constant and vociferous complaints of Chinese hypocrisy and double standards. The Doklam Standoff which went for more than 70 days in 2016 is a grim reminder of China’s belligerent and hostile attitude towards India. Although both countries are interdependent and intertwined commercially, the fact that India and China share the longest disputed border issue demands both hard and soft diplomacy. India has been successful in establishing its agenda of terrorism and outlining Pakistan as a state sponsor of terrorism, at several bilateral and multilateral forums. However, relations between China and India continue to be affected by the former’s political endearment to Pakistan. Rebalancing of relations is hard to witness unless confidence-building measures and diplomatic relations between both countries accept the scourge of terrorism and agree to fight against the challenge. Although China is itself a victim of fundamentalism and militancy, its likelihood of upsetting Pakistan’s propagandist civil and military government is dim.