Free 690 words essay on positive and negative impacts of one-child policy in China for school and college students.
One-Child Policy in China
The One-Child Policy was introduced in China by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1979, as a part of Family Planning Policy. The law instructed the families to have only one child in order to slow down the then-surging population. This would have led to lesser demands of water, electricity and other resources. This was also envisioned to reduce social, economic and environmental problems in China. This was originally designed to be implemented as a one-generation policy. On January 2016, Two-Child Policy became effective.
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It was implemented at the provincial level. The enforcement was more relaxed in some provinces, however in densely populated urban areas the one child limit was strictly imposed. The local officials were given the flexibility to make exceptions and allow the second child in some families for example, where the father is a disabled service man, when both parents are single children, if the first child is a daughter, in families with children with disabilities or some other disabling condition. It was estimated that at least 22 ways what designed to allow parents to qualify for exceptions to the law towards one child policy. The implementation happened to be in the form of fee, popularly known as “Family Planning Fine”. This was a fine paid by the couple to raise the second child.
Eventually in 2015 it was realised that the government should abolish the one child policy in order to cater to the country’s female to male sex ratio and to deal with the increasing geriatric population.
Some Positive Effects were observed in China because of the One-Child Policy:
- Population growth rate of China decreased enormously over the period of more than 3 decades.
- There was a marked improvement in the health care facilities of the country. Also, the risks of death and injury involved with pregnancy in women were significantly reduced.
- The living standards of women took a path of betterment with the enforcement of this policy. In families where the single child was a female, parents started investing on their future with good education and better job facilities. Thus, the quality of life of today’s women in China improved drastically.
- Single children are being believed to create a different society of China.
However, the Negative Effects outnumbered the few positive effects:
- Enforcing the law was a challenge and many areas witnessed riots against the government officials.
- Many corrupt officials and wealthy individuals violated the policy for their good. However, they were later exposed and were punished with proliferated fines.
- The policy required the women to have a contraceptive intrauterine device surgically installed after the first child and tubal ligation sterilization after the second child. This was a measure against their will and against the Human Rights.
- A complete generation underwent a single child policy, impacting the gender ration of the country hugely for the bad. Many couples denied their female child by killing them, not reporting their birth or offering them for adoption. China now has 33.5 million more men than women leading to social instability and marriage-related emigration.
- Single-children of these times remained deprived of the childhood experiences that their parents underwent. Socialists also argue that these children don’t know the effective medium to lower down their stress levels which could be a major problem of the coming future.
- Children were kept within a balloon of over-protection because any harm to the child meant great loss to the family.
- Many families underwent medical treatment to conceive twins as there existed no fine on multiple births.
- In the recent past years, it was observed that the working age population of the country decreased tremendously and there was a spark in the aging population of the country. This increased the number of dependent persons in comparison to independent persons.
- This was applicable only on child obtaining Chinese Citizenship, resulting in Birth Tourism.
The population of china was already growing on a low rate according to reports, in lieu of education regarding “appropriate” age of marriage, number of children to be planned, age difference between siblings and the rising economy. Thus, the whole idea of implementation and enforcement of this law is being questioned.