Free 450 words essay on Mangalyaan – Facts, History and all Information for school and college students.
The Indian Space Research Association (ISRO) has made a name for itself with some spectacularly designed and budgeted space missions. The Mars Orbiter Mission or Mangalyaan is one such marvel that makes ISRO the fourth space agency to venture into moon’s atmosphere after the United States, European Union and former Soviet Union. Also, it was India’s first interplanetary mission, and fortunately turned out to be a massive success. Mangalyaan was launched at an incredibly low cost of Rs. 450 crores and this mission was carried out in a period of 15 months. Such a feat was quite unfathomable as even NASA‘s ‘Maven’ Mars orbiter took five years to be completed. The weight of the satellite was abysmally low at 1,350 kilograms. The success of Mangalyaan established India’s credibility as a competent and low-cost base for sophisticated engineering.
The Mars Orbiter Mission was launched through a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and was successfully inserted into the Mars orbit on 24 September, 2014. This mission is a technology demonstrator with the primary objective to develop the technologies required for designing, planning, management, and operations of an interplanetary mission. MOM will explore the Martian surface features along with its morphology, topography, mineralogy and the atmosphere, by employing indigenous scientific instruments. It shall study the constituents of Martian atmosphere including methane and carbon dioxide, and the dynamics of its atmosphere, effects of solar wind, and radiation, etc. The mission would also observe the Martian moon ‘Phobos’ , and estimate the asteroids seen during the Martian Transfer Trajectory.
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Mangalyaan mission ensured that the Orbiter endured the Interplanetary space for 300 days before Mars capture. It would employ deep-space communications, navigation-guidance-control capabilities, and autonomy at the end of the spacecraft. The MOM is specifically searching for traces of methane on Mars that would lead to further discovery of the possibilities of life on the red planet.
The five prominent instruments on-board the Orbiter are Lyman-Alpha Photometer, Methane Sensor for Mars, Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser, Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, and Mars Color Camera. The command and navigation operations were performed by the ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network. Two Travelling-Wave Tube Amplifiers and two coherent transponders are used for communication with the Indian Deep Space Network.
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On 19 May, 2017, the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) reached 1000 days in orbit around Mars and according to ISRO officials is in good health now. The entire team of Mangalyaan mission won the US-based National Space Society’s 2015 Space Pioneer Award in the science and engineering category. ISRO has now planned to launch Mangalyaan 2 with greater specific payload by the year 2020.