Essay on Wildlife in Africa

Free 800 words essay on Wildlife in Africa for school and college students.

When it comes to Africa, the one thing that instantly pops up in one’s mind is the Wildlife. As everyone is quite aware, the wildlife in Africa stands for its diversity. There is probably no better continent on the earth known for a better wildlife wealth than Africa.

Africa extensively covers areas from intense heat to bitter cold. The reason why the wildlife in Africa is so well established is because of the vegetation that supports many different kinds of animals, birds, insects etc. More than 40 species are presently existing with a great variety of almost everything including carnivores, antelopes, gazelles and much more. The bird life as well doesn’t lag behind in this. The south side of the Sahara is a habitat to more than 1500 species. And not to forget, Cheetah, the fastest animal is also there in Africa. Along with this, Ostrich, Elephants and other popular species can be found too.


free essay on Wildlife in Africa

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The wildlife in Africa can be categorised into several different types. Each category is seen to include different species of animals. These categories along with the animals have been mentioned as follows.

  1. Grassland Wildlife:

The first is the Grassland Wildlife that refers to the animals inhabiting on the grasslands (grazing animals). There are over 20 such species that reside on the Savannahs. Animals such as lions, hyenas and vultures along with different herds game their predators naturally. The guinea fowl and hornbills are the birds under the grassland wildlife.

  • Lion: Known as the principal predator of the Savannah, they hunt with the lionesses and prey on animals such as zebras, buffaloes, etc.
  • Zebra: Zebras are known to live in family groups and get into herds in dry seasons. They feed on the tough tops of the grasses.
  • Giraffe: The male giraffes reach up to 5.5m (18ft) and feed on acacia leaves.
  • Secretary Bird: These are birds with long legs and feathered crest that rarely fly. They mostly feed on snakes.
  • Aardvark: It is known as the solitary nocturnal animal. They usually feed on the nests of ants and termites.


  1. Wetland Wildlife:

Wetland Wildlife refers to the animals residing on or under water. Animals such as crocodiles, hippos, floodplain species (leeches and fish) including the Nile perch and tiger fish come under this category.

  • Papyrus: This is the most common plant in African swamps. It is known to grow in clumps.
  • Hippopotamus: These animals are mostly found submerged in the water with just the upper face part outside the water.
  • Cichlid Fish: There are about 256 species of cichlid located at the Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika.
  • Lesser Flamingo: There are about 3 million flamingos at Lake Nakuru in Kenya. They mostly feed on the plentiful algae.


  1. Desert Wildlife:

Desert Wildlife is mainly restricted to the Sahara and the deserts of the Horn of Africa, Kalahari and Namib. Animals such as bustards, sand grouse and the scimitar–horned Oryx are found in these deserts.

  • Addax: This animal is found in the driest and hottest parts of the Sahara. It feeds on the succulent plants and tubers.
  • Sand Skink: It is mainly found underground in its burrow. It is known to feed on the small mammals such as mice as well as birds’ eggs.
  • Sand Grouse: It is known to fly long distances since it needs to drink often.
  • Fennec Fox: These are mainly found in the small colonies among sand dunes. It burrows into it to avoid heat.


  1. Rainforest Wildlife:

The rainforests are known for a warm and wet environment. Animals such as gorillas are found here feeding on leaves. Pigs feed on the fruit that falls from the canopy and porcupines.

  • Small Spotted Genet: It is a cat–like animal that spends the day sleeping. It mostly feeds on birds and small mammals/insects.
  • Yellow–Backed Duiker: It is the largest of the forest duikers. It lives in bamboo forests.
  • Mountain Gorilla: It lives in a small area of rainforest. It is massive in size but is not aggressive.
  • Red Colobus Monkey: It is one of the five species of specialized leaf-eating primates in Africa. It usually resides in the forest canopy in family groups of 20.


  1. Mountain Wildlife:

The mountains wildlife is extended to the mountains of Ruwenzori, Kenya and Kilimanjaro. Animals such as the Rodents are found in the moorland and the scarlet–tufted malachite sunbird is found in close association with giant lobelias.

  • Gelada: It is mostly found in Ethiopia and feeds on seeds, roots, grass and fruit.
  • Rock Hyrax: These usually live in colonies of 50 or more.
  • Crowned Hawk Eagle: It is mostly found in the mountainous regions of east Africa and Zaire and feed on monkeys.
  • Giant Plants: Some plants in the mountains make up for the most extraordinary vegetation in the world.
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