Essay on Brian Drain problem in India
Free 890 words essay on Brian Drain problem in India for school and college students.
The presence of Indian diaspora is geographically divided into a whopping number of 110 countries, with approximately 30 million Indian settled abroad. Brain drain as we call is basically ‘human capital flight’, a situation in which skilled human resources or people of high worth shift to some other country in search of better income opportunities or lifestyle. Although India generates a substantial amount of remittances, the highest in the world, the country has become an exporter of a talent pool, it desperately requires to serve domestically.
This financial and human mass migration has been one of the biggest socio-economic problems of India since decades. India’s skewed and miscalculated socialistic policies, import restrictive trade practices, unilateral protectionism, and opacity from neo-liberalization for a long period of time had kept the nation at a Hindu rate of growth. This led to the painfully slow development and growth of manufacturing base. Even as the country opened to neo-liberalism and globalization in 1991, the red-tapism and policy paralysis kept haunting the nation’s growth. Hence a large number of disenchanted talented individuals kept migrating to advanced economies, which duly recognized their talent and paid hefty remuneration.
These individuals leave often at the cost of the educational infrastructure created by India maintained by ordinary taxpayers of the country. Their flight poses a backbreaking damage due to lack of requisite talent in different sectors of the economy. Being a democratic country, there can be no restrictions or conditionality posed on them, however, this brain drain is always a challenge before India.
Causes of Brain Drain:
- Educational opportunities: Even after 71 years of Independence from the British Raj, India has not been able to develop educational institutions of excellence that can compete for the best of the world, such as Ivy League, Oxford or Cambridge University. This can be attributed to the minuscule funding pattern and lack of prioritization. Nevertheless, students with great potential and ambitious goals often leave the nation for higher education and prefer settling there itself for a job. The quality of education, high per capita income, resources, and standards are lucrative in advanced economies, that gives them little incentive to come back home.
- Job scarcity: India has a plethora of talent, as demonstrated by the incredible performance of Indians across the world in almost every possible advanced field. However, the country doesn’t give enough remuneration and rewarding working conditions.
- Scarce opportunities: Indian research organizations in science, technology, and social science are laggards in their prominence, as compared to the remarkable research framework abroad. Lack of funding and vision is the reason why India cannot produce enough Nobel Prize laureates and scientists. Developed nations do not have a hierarchical model of rewards, and provide sufficient opportunities to pursue research and development. The rapid expansion of R&D along with internalization of knowledge creation attracts skilled migrants.
- Easy migration: Since developed countries are not rich with the demographic dividend, they prefer labor mobility. In fact, the European Union has signed labor mobility partnerships with India. Since India has a high English speaking population, language facilitates migration. Therefore, India has predominantly become an important source of labor for developed nations.
Problems with Brain Drain:
- Most students who leave do not return to India leaving a talent vacuum, thereby wasting the capital invested in them that is by intention used for their contribution to the nation’s development.
- Lack of potential skilled personnel lead to inadequate utilization of the country’s huge resources.
- There is always a shortage of skilled doctors and engineers in the country.
A report of the National Science Foundation — Immigrants’ Growing Presence in the US Science and Engineering Workforce: Education and Employment Characteristics in 2013 —states that migration of Indian scientists and engineers to the US have increased by 85% in the last ten years. 75% of British doctors are of Indian origin. 60% of engineers in the Silicon Valley of the US are Indians.
What can be done?
- India needs to fast-track its educational infrastructure in a mission mode to catch up with the world. There must be a monumental rise in higher educational institutions that offer lucrative scholarships, research opportunities, adequate funding to laboratories and apparatuses and international exposure. It can help retain the young talent pool who rush abroad to explore the world and earn big.
- As for now, India has done very little to bring back the NRIs such as OCI, tax rebates, and liberalization. It is not enough as India still ranks in the lower rungs of Human Development Index, Ease of Doing Business, Global Competitiveness Index, Freedom of Press, Inclusive Growth and Development, Global Energy Architecture Performance Index, etc.
- India needs to get rid of bureaucratic hurdles, political interventions and micro-management, corruption, archaic labor laws, and any retrograde or retrospective taxation policies. Introduction of Goods and Services Tax, and Insolvency and Bankruptcy code, nevertheless, are a giant leap in this direction.
Development agenda remains to be the top priority of every nation. However, Indian policymakers need to understand that effective redistribution of wealth requires a massive creation of it. Hence the nation must not shy away from remunerating those who help create it. Big bang reforms in educational and economic policies and strengthening of institutions at every level of governance are the methods that have to employ on a priority basis to stop the scourge of Brain Drain.