Essay on Diabetes
Free 900 words essay on Diabetes for school and college students.
Diabetes is a chronic condition classified under metabolic disorders. In this condition, the metabolism of the glucose produced in the body gets altered. It is the most common chronic disorder affecting more than 9% of population in US, while almost thrice this percentage of population is affected by Prediabetes and they do not know about it. This condition is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States.
The researchers from health background take keen interest in studying the unceasing possibilities that exist with diabetes in present times. An increase in the occurrence of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in the youth population lead to a research in the United States which showed that in the period from 2002 to 2012, there has been a significant increase in the incidences of diabetes amongst youths of minority racial and ethnic groups.
For an effective understanding of this condition, we must know that most of the food we eat gets converted into glucose during digestion. As the process of absorption starts, the glucose enters into the bloodstream. Here, it enters into the cells to provide for growth and energy but that is possible only in the presence of insulin. In cases of no or low levels of Insulin, the glucose remains free in the bloodstream. Increased levels of this free glucose in the blood stream is termed as Diabetes.
Now it would be important to understand about Insulin as well. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas in the body. As the process of digestion begins, the pancreas automatically releases sufficient amounts of Insulin in the body which assists the glucose in the blood stream to enter into the cells, thus, maintaining the levels of glucose in the blood stream. In condition of diabetes, either the insulin produced is not sufficient or the cells in the bloodstream do not respond to the insulin produced by the pancreas. This results in an increase in the level of glucose in the blood stream, which is the status in Diabetes. Eventually the excess glucose is disposed off the body through the urine. Through this, one can easily understand that in a diabetic, even though glucose is present, it is not available for the essential energy and development requirements of the body.
There are 3 types of Diabetes:
- Type 1 Diabetes: This is a type of diabetes where body does not produce Insulin. It usually surfaces before a person reaches 40 years of age. Thus, it is also called Insulin dependent Diabetes or Juvenile Diabetes or Early Onset Diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disorder where the body mistakenly attacks the Beta cells of the pancreas which are responsible for the production of Insulin. Thus, there is no production of Insulin in such cases.
- Type 2 Diabetes: In Type 2 Diabetes patients, the quantity of Insulin produced by the body is low or the cells in the body do not react to the Insulin produced. It usually develops as a person ages. This is the most common type of diabetes. Amongst the population suffering from diabetes, 90% fall out in this category. This is a progressive disease which worsens with age. There are certain risk factors which put a set of a population into high risk category for this condition, for example obesity, heredity, men with low testosterone levels, sedentary lifestyle, low “good” cholesterol levels (HDL), high triglycerides level and also, higher the age higher the risk. Type 2 diabetes is also known as Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus or Adult-Onset Diabetes Mellitus.
- Gestational Diabetes: This is a type of diabetes which affects women during pregnancy. It is diagnosed during pregnancy when the body is unable to produce Insulin sufficient enough to carry the functions in the body. It is this type, which if goes uncontrollable can possess high risk for the baby. Reports suggest that it is present in 2 to 10% of all pregnancies. It is seen to resolve as the baby is born. However 35 to 60% of women with such a condition progress to develop Type 2 Diabetes in the next 10 to 20 years.
- Secondary Diabetes: This kind of diabetes results as a secondary condition to another medical condition of the body, for example Acute Pancreatitis or Trauma or Surgical removal of Pancreas.
- Hormonal Disturbances Diabetes may also result from some conditions of hormonal disturbances, for example Acromegaly and Cushing’s Syndrome. In both cases, disturbances in Hormonal Production leads to Blood Sugar Elevation.
- Certain Medications like Steroids may worsen the management of diabetes or expose a latent diabetic condition. This is also seen in the medications used for the treatment of HIV AIDS.
A person with diabetes may suffer from Increased Urination both in terms of frequency and output, Weight Loss, Exhaustion, Excessive Thirst and Hunger, Delayed Healing and Sensory Loss in hands and feet. Having high blood glucose levels for a long time can cause damage to some parts of the body, for example Eyes, Kidneys, Nerves, Heart and Circulatory System.
There are certain tests which help in the diagnosis of diabetes, namely:
- The A1C test
- The FPG test i.e. Fasting Plasma Glucose test
- The OGTT test i.e. Oral Glucose Tolerance test
However Random Blood Sugar test is essential to diagnose Prediabetes.
There is no treatment known for Type 1 Diabetes. However, Type 2 Diabetes is manageable although, it lasts a lifetime. Active Lifestyle, good exercise, healthy psychy, well balanced diet low in sugar are the ways to maintain Type 2 Diabetes.